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UKCRC Health Research Classification System

4.1 Discovery and preclinical testing of markers and technologies

Main inclusion criteria

Discovery, development and preclinical testing of novel markers (that may be derived from patient samples) and technologies for use in detection, diagnosis, prediction, prognosis and monitoring including

  • biological and psychological markers
  • diagnostic and monitoring devices, imaging, scanning, predictive and diagnostic tests
  • development and characterisation of models
  • diagnostic measures and methodologies


Advice on research activities

Note the word ‘discovery’ in this context is a medical term referring to determining if a marker is suitable for use in diagnosis/prognosis. This is distinct from the primary identification of candidates that may be potentially used as diagnostic markers, which would be coded in 2 Aetiology.

Therefore this code is suitable for use if potential diagnostic targets have already been identified in preliminary aetiological studies characterising specific pathways and these potential markers are now being verified in the discovery and testing stage.

Includes pre-clinical investigation of potential diagnostics, however these studies can include patient samples if they are being used in the diagnostic development phase.

Excludes clinical and applied testing in humans, once verified in the laboratory, often in a trial or studies that involve a group of people. Such studies should be coded 4.2 Marker evaluation.

Official terminology

Full name of code

Short name Unique ID
4.1 Discovery and preclinical testing of markers and technologies 4.1 Marker discovery



Related external links

Common Scientific Outline (CSO) – 4.1 Technology Development and/or Marker Discovery